2012年成人本科教育学士学位英语考试复习题

时间:2018-03-03 17:29  作者:  阅读次数:

2012年成人本科教育学士学位英语考试复习题

 

2012学位英语考试模拟题(五)

Passage1

  Today supermarkets are found in almost every large city in the world. But the first supermarket was opened only fifty years ago. It was opened in New York by a man named Michael Cullen.

  A supermarket is different from other types of stores in several ways. In supermarkets goods are placed on open shelves. The customers choose what they want and take them to the check-out counter. This means that fewer employees are required than in other stores.

  The way products are displayed is another difference between supermarkets and many other types of stores. For example in supermarkets there is usually a display of small inexpensive items just in front of the check-out counter candies chocolate magazines cheap books and so on why are they there

  Most customers who go to a supermarket buy from a shopping list. They know exactly what they need to buy. They shop according to a plan. By the time he or she reaches the check-out counter the customer is feeling pleaded and relaxed because the task of shopping is finished. In this happy mood the customer sees an attractive display of inexpensive goods that were not on her shopping list. Now she feels like buying something just for her own pleasure and enjoyment. Many customers buy from these displays of products near the check-out counter and this is exactly what the owner of the supermarket hopes they will do.

  Another important fact in helping a customer choose what to buy is where a product is placed on a shelf. A product that is placed at eyelevel on a shelf sells much better than one which is placed on a lower or higher shelf. A product which is easy to see sells best. Manufacturers pay a higher price to have their products placed at eye level on the shelves.

  The comfort and convenience of shopping centers is another factor which makes them popular with customers. Large parking spaces are provided and many supermarkets stay open until very late at night.

  1. According to the passage which statement is NOT true

  A       Today supermarkets are found in almost every big city.

  B       The first supermarket was opened only half a century ago.

  C       The first supermarket was opened in New York.

  D       A supermarket is different from other kinds of stores in two ways

  答案: D

  解析: 细节题。根据第一段内容知道ABC都是正确的,另外第2段的第一句中several ways和下面文章的内容也都可以知道不仅仅是两个方式。

  2. According to the passage which statement is true/

  A       Supermarkets need more clerks than other stores.

  B       In supermarkets goods are placed on closed shelves.

  C       The customers prefer supermarkets to other kinds of stores.

  D       The customers pay any clerk they meet for what they have bought in supermarkets

  答案: C

  解析: A 正好和作者的意思相反了,B也是,应该是opened才是正确的。D中不是直接向导购付费。

  3. A product that is placed ___ sells best.

  A on a lower shelf                     B on a higher shelf

  C as high as one‘s waist              D as high as one’s eyes

  答案:  D

  解析:  细节题。文章中的A product that is placed at eyelevel on a shelf sells much better than one which is placed on a lower or higher shelf可以知道正确的答案,

  4. Why do you think shopping centers attract more customers than other kinds of stores/

  A       They have more kinds of goods.

  B       They have few employees.

  C       They display small inexpensive items in front of check-out counters.

  D       They have large parking lots and they stay open until almost midnight.

  答案:  D

  解析:  细节题。文章的最后一段是说明超市比较起其它的商店优点。也是受大家喜欢的原因。

  5. According to the way small inexpensive items are displayed we can infer that the owner of a supermarket has a good knowledge of ___

  A physiology          B psychology         C biology       D biophysics

  答案:  B

  解析:  A是生理的意思,B是心理,C是生物D是生物物理原理,推论对消费者的促销只有依据消费者的心里才能做出正确的经营决策。

Passage 2

  Most of the ill health we suffer could be prevented if people made more effort to change their life styles. Instead many people continue to smoke to drink excessively to eat unbalanced diets. How can governments help people protect their health and avoid premature death

  Well many of the measures which need not be expensive. One of the first preventive health measures should be an increase in taxes on tobacco to the point at which consumption falls off. The aim should be to raise the same amount of revenue from a decreasing number of people. In the short term such a policy could even raise extra money which could then be spent on subsidizing sport so that advertising tobacco through sports sponsorship could be banned.

  Legislation is badly needed to ban all advertising of tobacco products as it persuades people to smoke more and so is in a larger part responsible for the ill health and thousands of premature deaths caused by cancer of the lung. Other measures should be enforced such as a much tougher health warning on cigarette packets and tobacco companies should be made to contribute to research into a cure for lung cancer.

  Alcoholism could be prevented by making wines spirits and strong beers more expensive and the revenue raised could be used to set up clinics to help the people who already have a drinking problem and want to give up. Similarly all advertising of alcohol should be banned and compensation paid to families of alcoholics who die of the liver disease.

  6. Among the following statements which one is not the life style that people should make more effort to change in order to suffer less

  A stop smoking      B drink less     C eat balanced food              D collect stamps

  答案: D

  解析: 一段中都已经提到了吸烟和饮食,就是没有涉及到收集邮票的形式,所以不选D这是一道细节题。

  7. What does “revenue” in the second paragraph mean

  A       the general income of a government

  B       pocket money

  C       broad street with trees on both sides

  D       building built in memory of somebody or some event

  答案:  A

  解析:  revenue是税收的含义,第2段的第2句主要介绍了利用税收的方式来规范人们的行为。其它的选项不符合文章的要求。

  8. Which of the following answers is wrong as to the result of new legislation on tobacco

  A       In a short term the new legislation on tobacco

  B       Then the money can stop tobacco sponsorship with sports.

  C       In the long run the new legislation will cause tobacco consumption to fall.

  D       But in the long run the new legislation may raise the falling number of smokers again

  答案:  D

  解析:  3段陈述了集中方法,法律收入和警告的形式,前三项都没有问题的,D错在无中生有new legislation作者没有提到。

  9. Choose the one measure that the writer wants to carry out against both tobacco and alcohol companies.

  A higher taxes       B lower prices     C advertising banned       D tougher warning

  答案:  C

  解析:  推论题。最后一段的最后一句是作者的建议,别出心裁其它的几项是说明常见和常用的方法,C是作者的建议。

  10. How is the writer‘s attitude towards tobacco and alcohol

  A positive        B slightly negative     C strongly opposing them     D objective

  答案: C

  解析: 判断作者态度题。A是支持的意思,BD分别是有点反对、客观的含义”C是明显的反对的意思,符合作者的观点。

Passage 3

  In America Mother‘s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. On that day we send our mothers a special Mother’s Day card and perhaps some flowers or candy to show our love and appreciation for all they have done for us. Although Mother‘s Day is a relatively new holiday in America more and more other countries are also setting aside a day to honor their mothers.

  I want to tell you today how the idea of having a special day for mothers began. It all started over a hundred years ago with a woman named Anna May Jarvis.

  Anna was born on May 1 1864 just before the end of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln. She was the daughter of a “minister” which in American English means a church leader. She was a quiet girl who liked to study in school but she liked everyone and was liked by everyone as well.

  After she became an adult Anna worked for a life insurance company in Philadelphia Pennsylvania-a city about halfway between New York City and Washington D.C. then in 1906 just two weeks after Anna‘s 42nd birthday her mother died. It was the second Sunday in May.

  In the months that followed Anna began to change. No longer was she so gentle so relaxed and easy-going. Instead she now had just one goal for her life-to have her mother and all other mothers honored throughout the whole world on the second Sunday of May.

  After more than a year of careful planning Anna arranged the first Mother‘s Day church service on May 10 1908 in Grafton West Virginia. The next year Anna was able to get the city of Philadelphia where she lived and worked to proclaim the second Sunday of May as an official Mother’s Day-the first city to do so. After three more years the state of West Virginia where Anna‘s mother had lived made Mother’s Day a statewide observance – not a holiday in the normal sense but still a day to remember what mothers have done for their children and society.

  11. Which answer is right about Mother‘s Day

  A       In America Mother‘s Day is a holiday with a very long history.

  B       More and more countries are put aside their tradition of celebrating Mother‘s Day.

  C       In America Mother‘s Day is on the second Sunday in May.

  D       Throughout the world Mother‘s Day is celebrated on the same day.

  答案: D

  解析: 细节题。根据第一段的内容可以知道ABC是正确的,C错在the same day和文章的意思不一样,仅仅是说其它的国家抽出一天但是没有说是在同一天。

  12. Choose the right explanation of the word “observance” in the last paragraph

  A       remark made by people

  B       action in accordance with custom

  C       performance of certain tradition

  D       notice paid widely

  答案: C

  解析: C的含义是传统的履行,实际上是过节日。根据上下文的含义应该是庆祝母亲节选择C较合适。

  13. How long in all had Anna spent to establish Mother‘s Day in West Virginia

  A       from May 10 1908 to May 10 1911

  B       for more than four years

  C       for more than three years

  D       for about three years

  答案: B

  解析: 细节题。这题有一定的推算性,on May 10 1908然后After three more years可以知道应该至少是四年。B是正确的答案。

  14. Choose the right understanding of this passage.

  A       Anna was born just before the assassination of President Lincoln which ended the Civil War.

  B       Anna was a daughter of a minister which in English means a church worker.

  C       Anna‘s mother’s death had done a little damage to him easy life.

  D       The Mother‘s Day celebrated in West Virginia is not a normal holiday but a day with special meaning.

  答案: D

  解析: 细节题。最后一段的Mother's Day a statewide observance – not a holiday in the normal sense but still a day to remember what mothers have done for their children and society.可以知道答案。

  15. According to the passage what most probably happened in the paragraph following

  A       The United States Congress proclaimed the Second in May as Mother‘s Day forever in the United States.

  B       Mother‘s Day gradually became a conventional celebration.

  C       Anna retired from her job with a fortune of over a hundred thousand dollars.

  D       People stopped buying candy to their mothers.

  答案:  B

  解析:  文义推论题。本文的作者主要是说母亲节的来历,到文章的最后只是说明了这个节日的历史,但尚没有说出在以后的时间里渐渐成为一个conventional(惯常的、惯例的)节日。

Passage 4

  Many of us believe that a person‘s mind becomes less active as he grows older. But this is not true according to Dr Jarvik professor of psychiatry at the University of California. She has studied the mental functioning of aging persons for several years. For example one of her studies concerns 136 pairs of identical twins who were first examined when they were already 60 years old. As Dr Jarvik continued the study of the twins into their 70s and 80s their minds did not generally decline as was expected.

  However there was some decline in their psycho-motor speed. This means that it took them longer to accomplish mental tasks than it used to. But when speed was not a factor they lost very little intellectual ability over the years. In general Dr Jarvik‘s studies have shown that there is no decline in knowledge or reasoning ability. This is true not only with those in their 30s and 40s but with those in their 60s and 70s as well.

  It is true that older people themselves often complain that their memory is not as good as it once was. However much of what we call “loss of memory” is not that at all. There usually was incomplete learning in the first place. For example the older person perhaps had trouble hearing or poor vision or inattention or was trying to learn the new thing at too fast a pace. In the cases where the older person‘s mind really seems to decay it is not necessarily a sign of decay due to old age. Often it is simply a sign of a depressed emotional state.

  16.This passage is mainly about ____.

  A how Dr Jarvik studied mental functioning of the twins.

  B what caused mental decay.

  C the results evidenced by Dr Jarvik‘s studies.

  D the difference between middle – aged and older persons

  答案:  C

  解析:  大意题。本文主要向读者传达了人的记忆和分析能力不是随着年龄的增大而消退,主要是通过。Dr Jarvik的研究成果来显示的。其它选项不是文章的主旨意思。

  17. The word “psychiatry” in paragraph 1 most probably means ____.

  A the study of human behavior.

  B the study of disease of the mind.

  C the study of problems with aging persons.

  D the study of twins growth.

  答案: B

  解析: 大意题。同上题的解释。主要的是disease of the mind和年龄的区别。

  18. A long – term study of 136 pairs of twins showed that ____.

  A they lost a little ability to reason over the years.

  B the only factor which declined over the years was their speed with which to perform mental tasks.

  C their memory was not as good as it had once been.

  D their minds became is not considered as they grew older.

  答案: B

  解析: 细节和推论。文章的第一段最后一句和第2段的前两句都是说明这样的一个实验说明研究结果。即,仅仅和速度有关系,课文的下面部分也相应作了解释。

  19. Which of the following is not considered as an instanced of “incomplete learning”

  A Poor hearing.

  B Bad eyesight.

  C Lack of attention.

  D The attempt to learn too many new things at the same time

  答案: D

  解析:最后一句的中间部分For example the older person perhaps had trouble hearing or poor vision or inattention or was trying to learn the new thing at too fast a pace没有提到D项的内容。D项仅仅说的是心理原因造成的结果。

  20. What we call mental decay is usually a sign of ____.

  A a low – spirited state.

  B a worsening state of health.

  C old age.

  D nervous tension

  答案: A

  解析: 细节题。文章的最后两句都是说明这个问题a sign of a depressed emotional state是说明的mental因素。


  Passage 5

  Leaving a tip in a restaurant has become a custom in most countries. The word “tip” came from the Latin word “Gratis” meaning free. Tips are defined as small gifts of money for service in addition to the payment due.

  Believe it or not the practice of tipping has a little interesting history. The custom can be traced back to the Roman era. The Romans were the first civilization to use coins. It is possible that the word “tip” came from the word stipend. Strips in Latin means gift. A more common belief is tips were first given in the 18th century England. A popular coffee house equipped each table with a coin box. The label of each box read “To insure promptness.” Dropping a coin into the box would result in quick service. Also the first letter of each word is T.I.P. – tip.

  In America and Europe it is customary to tip anywhere from 10% to 20%. Taxi drivers waiters in restaurants waitresses in lounges hotel boys doormen and disco coat check girls all expect a little something. People working at these jobs usually receive a low basic salary. Tips are quite necessary to supplement their income. Today most people decide the size of tip according to the quality of the service. If the service is good most people are quite happy to leave a tip.

  The world is full of big spenders and people who act like big spenders. Surprisingly rich people are not “big tippers” unless entertaining guests. It is no use showing off if nobody is there to watch right Many throw money around like water to impress a group of friends out for an evening “on the town” People who usually cannot afford it are the biggest tippers in front of their friends. It is all part of the show to prove a certain level of social success. Nobody wants to look cheap stingy or poor in front of their friends. Over-tipping also gives some satisfaction just to see the waiter‘s reaction.

  For whatever reason tipping will continue to be practiced in most countries. Tipping does have its place in our modern society. It will also remain a somewhat personal expression of gratitude.

  21. What is the meaning of the word “gratis” according to the passage

  A free of obligation   B free of charge     C plenty in time    D free from tax

  答案:A

  解析:B是免于起诉C是充足的时间D是免于征税,A是责任义务的免除。根据文章对消费的介绍选择A相比较妥帖。

  22. When were tips first given in England

  A in the 17th century                      B in the 18th century

  C in the 19th century                      D in the 20th century

  答案: B

  解析: 细节题,第2段的第四句中A more common belief is tips were first given in the 18th century England其它的选项是错误的

  23. Which of the following statements is true

  A       Most people think that tips originated in England.

  B       Most people think that tips originated in Rome

  C       Today most people decide the size of tips according to their mood.

  D       According to the author the practice of tipping does not have an interesting history

  答案: A

  解析: 推论题。第2段的。2句是说这个习惯追溯到罗马但是大家普遍认为的是在英国,理由同上。

  24. How to understand the sentence “The world is full of big spenders and people who act like big spenders.”

  A       All people in the world have a lot of money.

  B       No one in the world has a lot of money.

  C       Many people spend a large sum of money every day.

  D       The number of people who either have a lot of money or who pretend to be rich is great.

  答案: D

  解析: AB明显是错误的!C和文章没有联系,主要是说一些有钱的和貌似有钱的人在消费上面的表现。C不能体现出该要表达的含义。

  25. Why are people who cannot afford tipping the biggest tippers in front of their friends

  A       Because they have a lot of money.

  B        Because they sympathize with taxi drivers waiters in restaurants waitresses in lounges and disco coat check girls etc.

  C       Because of their vanity.

  D       None of the above.

  答案:  C

  解析:  vanity是虚荣奢华的含义,最后2段主要说。 It is all part of the show to prove a certain level of social success. Nobody wants to look cheap stingy or poor in front of their friends是说没有钱人的虚荣!C应该是最合适的答案。

  Passage 6

  The current generation of parents must in many cases balance care of children with care for their own aging parents. It is estimated that women can now expect their mothers to live 55 years after their own birth and 30 to 40 years after the birth of their first child many analysts suggest that this added pressure disproportionately touches the women who already carry major responsibility for their own children.

  Perhaps the most important issue that emerges from the social trends just described is the impact of family instability and single parenting on children. Some argue that single-parent families are a deficient form of family functioning. Others see them as a courageous desirable alternative to unhappy two-parent families.

  On average kids fare better in two-parent families. But a sizable percentage of children in single parent families thrive and many in two-parent families do not what matters most – regardless of family structure – is what happens within the family.

  Particularly important is the family‘s ability to support and nurture minimize conflict practice democratic decision making provide consistent and positive forms of discipline and mode and encourage values of caring and responsibility. Families should also provide access to structured activities e.g.church participations clubs organizations lessons and a stimulating environment for learning including parental involvement in schooling)。 While it is somewhat easier to deliver these in two-parent families some single-parent families do succeed by drawing on informal and formal support systems from neighborhoods schools and churches.

  26. The current generation of parents shoulder a heavy pressure ___.

  A. since they carry major responsibility for their own children.

  B. because in many cades they must balance care of children with care for their own aging parents.

  C. they must burren lots of work in family.

  D. because they hardly obtain any help from others

  答案:

  解析: 细节题。文章的第一段第一句就是该题的答案,主要说作为母亲在家庭里面在孩子和对他们的老父母之间的权衡利弊。

  27. Perhaps the most important issue that emerges from the social trends is ___.

  A. the deficiency of single-parent families.

  B. whether single-parent families can be regarded as a courageous desirable alternative to unhappy two-parent families.

  C. the impact of family instability and single parenting on children.

  D. the poverty of the single-parent families.

  答案: C

  解析: 细节题。第2段的第一句就是这题的答案,要大家对细节仔细的把握,该句的意思是说:当今社会出现的家庭的不稳定性的单身家庭的出现对孩子这代的严重冲击。

  28. On average kids fare better in two-parent families while ___.

  A. many of them are not so obedient.

  B. a sizable percentage of children in single-parent families thrive.

  C. what happens within the family really matters.

  D. children in single-parent families are not well fed.

  答案: B

  解析: 细节题。第2段的最后两句,意思是说在也有一定比例的单身家庭里面的孩子,生活学习也有进步。

  29. All the following statements are mentioned as the important family abilities EXCEPT ___.

  A. try to avoid the conflict.

  B. decisions are always made democratically.

  C. encourage the qualities of caring and responsibility.

  D. make sure to monitor the fulfillment of each one‘s duty.

  答案: D

  解析: D的意思是说务必监视每个人的责任的履行。最后一段的第一句分别提到了A,B,C项的内容。只有第4项的内容没有涉及。

  30. In what way can the single-parent families succeed in participating in the structured activities

  A. By providing access to church participation clubs etc.

  B. By drawing on support systems from various kinds of organizations.

  C. By taking part in parental involvement in schooling.

  D. By following the two-parent families

  答案:

  解析: 细节题。在文章的最后一句,是说利用那些来自邻居教堂和社会正式和非正式的援助 informal and formal support systems from neighborhoods schools and churches.

  Passage 7

  Hyperinflation(极度通货膨胀) is defined as an economic condition during which there is a steep increase in prices. In accordance with the laws of economics three factors combine to create this condition. First demand must be much greater than the supply of available goods. Second the country must continuously create and thereby build up an ever increasing supply of money. Third the governmental processes that are used to collect taxes must be crippled. Let‘s imagine a country where production is barely accomplishing its goal to keep up with demand. When this happens the government should decrease the salaries of the workers by raising taxes. But the government is powerless to collect the taxes so it prints more money to compensate for(补偿)the goods it must purchase. This new money goes to the workers who produced the goods as a result the people are not forced to give up certain things for a while – they actually become richer. While this might appear to be a positive step it is actually regressive. Every month the government is forced to print more and more money thereby increasing its liabilities (债务) until it is destroyed. The only way to prevent total economic collapse in such a situation is for the government to increase taxes in a manner that is characterized by impartiality (公正) to everyone involved.

  大意:主要是说明了经济的的宏观调控政策比如:调控市场供求关系。或是货币的发行来调节市场。

  31. Which of the following might occur during hyperinflation

  A. A slight increase in prices.

  B. Rapid growth of economy.

  C. Decrease of workers‘ salary.

  D. Soaring prices.

  答案: D

  解析: 细节题。文章的第一段的第1句increase in prices是物价飞涨的意思Soaring prices的意思和这是一样的。

  32. The author states that during hyperinflation ___.

  A. goods appear to be overabundant.

  B. the country has to supply more money.

  C. government may become richer by collecting more taxes.

  D. people are forced to give up certain things

  答案: B

  解析: 细节题。问题是通货膨胀的时候应该用什么样的货币政策,Second the country must continuously create and thereby build up an ever increasing supply of money可以知道这道题的答案。

  33. The passage implies that ___.

  A. hyperinflation is just a passing phase in the economic development.

  B. people could benefit a lot from hyperinflation.

  C. hyperinflation is used by a government to raise taxes.

  D. hyperinflation may cause the downfall of a government.

  答案: D

  解析: 推论题。文章的第7句可以知道,当出现通货膨胀时候在税收和商品的补偿上政府要付出一定的代价。因而一定产生downfall下降的效应。
  34. The word “regressive” probably means ___.

  A. harmful.     B. negative.    C. going back.     D. progressive

  答案: B

  解析: A是有害的C是倒退,D是进程的意思,B是否定的、反作用的意思,While this might appear to be a positive step it is actually regressive.另外这是个转折句关系,应该和positive相反。

 

 
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